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NRF2

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Abstract

The transcription factor Nrf2 (nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2) is a major regulator of oxidative stress defence in the human body. As Nrf2 regulates the expression of a large battery of cytoprotective genes, it plays a crucial role in the prevention of degenerative disease in multiple organs. Thus it has been the focus of research as a pharmacological target that could be used for prevention and treatment of chronic diseases such as multiple sclerosis, chronic kidney disease or cardiovascular diseases. The present review summarizes promising findings from basic research and shows which Nrf2-targeting therapies are currently being investigated in clinical trials and which agents have already entered clinical practice.

NRF2 Stimulator – Protandim

The Nrf2 signaling-pathway mediates multiple avenues of cytoprotection by activating the transcription of more than 500 genes that are crucial in the metabolism of drugs and toxins, protection against oxidative stress and inflammation, as well as playing an integral role in stability of proteins and in the removal of damaged proteins via proteasomal degradation or autophagy. Nrf2 interacts with other important cell regulators such as tumor suppressor protein 53 (p53) and nuclear factor-kappa beta (NF-kappaB) and through their combined interactions is the guardian of healthspan, protecting against many age-related diseases including cancer and neurodegeneration. We hypothesize that this signaling pathway plays a critical role in the determination of species longevity and that this pathway may indeed be the master regulator of the aging process.

Neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs) are predicted to be the biggest health concern in this century and the second leading cause of death by 2050. The main risk factor of these diseases is aging, and as the aging population in Western societies is increasing, the prevalence of these diseases is augmenting exponentially. Despite the great efforts to find a cure, current treatments remain ineffective or have low efficacy. Increasing lines of evidence point to exacerbated oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and chronic neuroinflammation as common pathological mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration. We will address the role of the nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) as a potential target for the treatment of NDDs.

The Nrf2–ARE pathway is an intrinsic mechanism of defence against oxidative stress. Nrf2 is a transcription factor that induces the expression of a great number of cytoprotective and detoxificant genes. There are many evidences that highlight the protective role of the Nrf2–ARE pathway in neurodegenerative conditions, as it reduces oxidative stress and neuroinflammation. Therefore, the Nrf2 pathway is being increasingly considered a therapeutic target for NDDsA chronic increase of oxidative stress is typical of serious pathologies such as myocardial infarction, stroke, chronic limb ischemia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), type II-diabetes, age-related macular degeneration leads to an epic increase of morbidity and mortality in all countries of the world. The initial inflammation followed by an excessive release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) implies a diffused cellular injury that needs to be corrected by an inducible expression of the innate detoxifying and antioxidant system. The transcription factor Nrf2, when properly activated, is able to restore a redox homeostasis and possibly improve human health.

Nrf2 in health and disease: current and future clinical implications
Al-Sawaf O 1, Clarinet T 2, Fragoulis A 3, Kan YW 4, Pufe T 5, Streetz K 6, Wruck CJ 1.